Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage.
The Mosses of Japan
Of the roughly 12,000 species of moss worldwide, Japan 1 hoards a whopping 2,500 varieties—a relative windfall for enthusiasts devoted to tracking down, studying, and documenting their different forms. That’s because Japan’s humid climate 2 creates the perfect conditions for the plant to thrive. Perhaps due to its prevalence on the island nation, moss is deeply rooted in Japanese culture. Most Japanese gardens, also known as Zen gardens, have moss, and the Japanese national anthem even contains a reference to it.
 In Western cultures, people will often view nature as something to be conquered.  But instead of trying to dominate nature, the Japanese attempt to coexist 3 for it, approaching the natural world with the attitude of a polite guest.  Japanese culture also values age and history.  Accordingly, there’s an inherent urge to preserve it; while there’s a robust moss-removal market in many cultures, many Japanese wouldn’t fathom destroying something so innocuous.
 Because moss doesn’t grow 4 dramatically overnight—and instead takes years and years to cover the surface of a stone—the Japanese see something inherently virtuous about the plant. 5
Of course, there’s also the beauty of 6 moss; vibrant colors that vary from bright green to brown, which richly complement the steely grays of stones, the red leaves of autumn, and the soft pink of cherry blossoms.
Like bonsai trees, moss can be grown in the home. 7 Although moss can be found almost anywhere in Japan, from street curbs to backyards, it’s easy to scrape some off, place it in a glass, and 8 it can be enjoyed as a clean, simple home decoration. Like cacti (a popular houseplant in the United States), moss is easy to care for, requiring little water to survive. 9 Many moss fans are drawn to the unique texture of the plant.
The Japanese concept of Wabi-sabi also plays a key role in moss’s popularity. Generally speaking, Wabi-sabi is an aesthetic that places a premium on qualities like impermanence, humility, 10 asymmetry; and imperfection. It’s the opposite of many Western aesthetic values, which include permanence, grandeur, symmetry, and perfection. To the Japanese, there’s a natural aspect to Wabi-sabi that’s considered beautiful, and moss is perhaps Wabi-sabi’s standard bearer:
11 it grows continuously and eventually dominates any space it inhabits. The humblest of plants, it’s often trampled upon, overshadowed by its larger, looming neighbors. A closer look, however, reveals a world of intricate, vibrant fauna, a tangle of elegant and strange forms.
Questions 12-22 are based on the following passage and supplemental material.
When Raindrops Fall
Have you ever taken a walk through the rain on a warm spring day and 12 see that perfect puddle? You know, the one where the raindrops seem to touch down at just the right pace, causing a dance of vanishing circles? It turns out that it all has to do with something called dispersion. In the context of water waves, dispersion is the ability of waves of different wavelengths to move at 13 it’s own individual speeds.
Looking down on a puddle, we see a collection of such waves moving together as one ripple in the water. When a raindrop touches down, imagine it as a “ding” to the water surface. This ding can be idealized as a packet of waves of all different sizes, with the ding itself
14 about two millimeters wide at the time of impact.
Adapted from Nate Barlow. © 2019 The Conversation US, Inc.
After the raindrop falls, the packet’s waves are ready to begin their new life in the puddle. 15 As a result, the appearance of 16 how those waves look depends on the body of water that the raindrop lands in. The number and spacing of rings that you see depends on the height of the 17 puddle. This can be verified by ripple tank experiments where drop of the same velocity fall into containers of water with different depths.
Because shallow puddles are much thinner than they are 18 wide, therefore they enable some of the most pronounced ripples. The balance between the surface force—the force between the water puddle and the air above it—and the gravitational force tips in favor of surface force. This is key, since the surface force 19 depend on the curvature of the water surface, whereas the gravitational force does not.
 An initially still shallow puddle becomes curved at the surface after the raindrop hits.  The long waves move slowly away from the point of impact, and the short waves move fast.  The surface force is different for long waves than for short ones, causing waves of different sizes to separate into 20 slow-moving ripples.  Naturally, then, the really short waves move really fast, becoming tightly packed at the perimeter.  This creates the enchanting pattern that we see. 21
Raindrops may react differently in other situations, though. Imagine raindrops hitting a lake, ocean, or those deep pothole puddles that require galoshes. Here, the raindrop hits the water, but the force due to gravity becomes more important. It moves waves of all sizes at the same speed, 22 that may overpower the rippling effect due to the surface force. Clearly, there is more to the seemingly simple beauty of puddle waves than meets the eye.
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Questions 23-33 are based on the following passage.
Feeling Like an Imposter
 Sitting at my desk at my first science-writing job, I couldn’t help thinking it was only a matter of time before my deception was uncovered.  Any second, I thought, my editor would walk in, tap me on the shoulder, and tell me she 23 had accidentally made a mistake in hiring me.  But I just couldn’t shake the feeling of being a fraud, of somehow having fooled everyone around me into believing I was a competent professional when I clearly was not. 24
25 Nevertheless, I was far from alone in feeling this way. According to Frederik 26 Anseel, a professor of work psychology at Ghent University in Belgium, a lot of people have trouble owning their accomplishments and worry they’re not qualified for their jobs despite evidence to the contrary. This so-called “imposter syndrome” (though not a true psychological syndrome in the clinical sense) was first described among high-achieving women, in a 1978 psychological paper.
I was relieved to learn that researchers have estimated that 70 percent of the general population has experienced the impostor phenomenon 27 upon some point, making it a concept that resonates with many people. 28 This was corroborated when I brought up the “syndrome” with a group of coworkers in the break room. Every person I asked had a story to tell, from feelings of anxiety after seemingly successful job interviews to bouts of uncertainty throughout college and graduate school.
“I’ve had people tell me, ‘You’ve just described to me something that I have felt for so many years, but I didn’t know there was a term for it,’” says Kevin Cokley, a psychologist I spoke with at the University of Texas at Austin. In the worst cases, he told me, it can lead to symptoms of depression and become truly debilitating, to the point where those affected may benefit from 29 interventions like: support groups, professional counseling, or medication.
The phenomenon is known to affect both men and women, and some studies have suggested that it disproportionately affects those of lower socioeconomic status. A recent study of reactions to compliments among college students, for instance, suggests that 30 more than half of all students find it challenging to accept compliments.
Data from survey of 300 undergraduate students. Adapted from The Michigan Daily. © The Michigan Daily 2019.
Impostor syndrome has gotten more attention in the past few years, with a number of public 31 figure’s shared their own experiences—including Facebook executive Sheryl Sandberg and celebrated writer Neil Gaiman. These efforts to 32 give out wisdom certainly helped me. Having been through the intense negative feelings that come along with this “syndrome,” 33 it can be hard for people to understand that they deserve their success.
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Questions 34-44 are based on the following passage.
Cities That Never Sleep
Night has always been a difficult realm for 34 humans that we’ve had to learn to cope with the cold and the dark to thrive in it. Since the industrial revolution, we’ve found ways to adapt our homes and cities to operate during the night. But as our conquest of the dark continues, the border between night and day is becoming increasingly blurry.
In 1988, sociologist Murray Melbin described the night as a frontier not unlike the American West. As early American settlers expanded westwards across the continent, so too, he argued, was society beginning to expand into the night. Melbin’s metaphor treated the night as a separate social entity and he argued that, just like geographical frontiers, it was inhabited by 35 pioneers, individuals and groups seeking work or leisure opportunities outside mainstream society, whether through desire or necessity.
Today, though, the night has become the territory of more than just pioneers. 36 First 24-hour news, then mobile and internet communication have made the domestic setting more porous. No longer are we cut off from mainstream society during the night; instead, people are able to communicate and engage with the outside world at any hour 37 we please.
In light of such developments, it has been argued that the traditional “night time” will soon be lost altogether—that an era of “24/7 society” is inevitable. This goes too far, however: the night time is not disappearing entirely. 38 On the other hand, its traditional form is fragmenting—splintering across time and space. Rather than a “loss of night,” we are seeing a simultaneous transformation of night and 39 day. Both are taking on more varied and more flexible characteristics as our behaviors and economies are increasingly unrestrained by sunrise and sunset.
Political activists 40 whom once met late at night in community centers or the back rooms of pubs, for instance, have moved much of their work online. 41 However, companies such as Uber are creating a new employment model—one that moves away from “day shifts” and “night shifts” and toward shorter, more frequent periods of work. 42 More broadly, research has found a trend toward people spreading their work out across 24 hours.
There is also the simple fact that night still poses practical challenges—lighting is expensive, and the bus and rail services in almost every city 43 runs on reduced networks during the night hours. 44 Our cities just do not offer the same services and experiences at 4am as they do at 4pm. Until they do, the night will retain some of its mystery.Open passage in new window
Dani is a car mechanic for a repair shop. Each day, she has a certain number of cars to fix in the shop. The number of cars that she has left to fix at the end of any given day is , where C is the number of cars left to fix and h is the number of hours she has worked that day. What is the meaning of the value 2 in this equation?